We now think of the brain as representing, rather as the symbols of language represent characteristics of things, although the shapes and sounds of language are quite different from whatever is being represented. Language requires rules of grammar (syntax), and meanings of symbols (semantics). Both seem necessary for processes of vision; though its syntax and semantics are implicit, to be discovered by experiment.Noë, and others, often suggest that upside down images are pseudo-problems that representationalism invokes. But, Gregory pretty quickly dispenses with this putative problems. He clearly presents them as only prima facie puzzling features of vision--features that might confuse common sense or early scientific theorizing, but ones that do not give rise to deep perplexity for representationalists.
Some puzzles of vision disappear with a little thought. It is no special problem that the eyes' images are upside down and optically right-left reversed-for they are not seen, as pictures, by an inner eye. (Gregory, 1997, p. 5).